Saturday, May 23, 2020

Cell Phones, Pagers And The Pda - 1267 Words

Abstract The recent advancements in the technology have made the coupling of the powerful processors along with the memory system very easy with the wireless communications and also high resolution based display to the wrist watch. This incorporation of the new technologies to the wrist watch has led to development of the smart watch technology. This smart watch has been specified in the name of wearable computer. People can be easily being in touch with the recent technologies and the on-going communication with the help of this smart watch. In case of the devices like mobile phones, pagers and the PDA they must be initially opened and then only they can be accessed. The instant-on paradigm used by these devices is the main success†¦show more content†¦Current watches are highlights on SMS service, remote control and evaluate the movements by internal accelerometer.One of the first smartwatches, with camera, voice control an notifications. You can see you hav an email, but are able to read it. The smartwatches on the other hand have taken to the next level where the instantly-viewable paradigm is used. The chance of misplacing the watches is also very less when compared to that of the mobile phones and pagers as these smart watches will be kept on the wrists. Despite of the different advantages offered by smart watch technology, there are several challenges that must be addressed while designing a smart watch technology. The design of the smart watch must be based on the small screen where there is no space for the input devices or for the batteries. The value provided to the smart watch platform mainly depends on the way of identifying proper solutions to all these challenges. This report covers the main technologies that are required while developing the smart watch. Along with these technologies, the main challenges that haveto be addressed during the smart watch design process are also covered.The new watch devices which are introduced in the market d o not support functions to estimating and evaluate personal activities in terms of software and hardware. That’s due to new watches needs pairing device to communicate with other devices. It has problem with

Monday, May 18, 2020

Crime And Punishment Is It A Crime - 1631 Words

Crime and Punishment Anytime there has been a crime, there has been a need for punishment for that crime. As a society, many of us feel that punishment should be rendered for crimes committed, but the type of punishment is always up for debate. Our concept of criminal law and its norms include honesty and responsibility for one’s actions and insists on moral culpability, in the form of mens rea and voluntariness (David, 2012). â€Å"Offenders who publicly accept responsibility for their crimes are more likely to internalize that responsibility than those who persist in denying guilt† (David, 2012, p. 64). Behind this concept is that of deterrence against future criminal actions. The rule instituting punishment is not solely an instruction to†¦show more content†¦10). Many times the offenders are ordered to pay back their victims for their loss, the justice system for costs related to processing their cases, and society for the disruptions caused because of their crimes (Siegel Bartollas, 2013). Another view is that punishment teaches a lesson, in which the state demonstrates its discontentment of their conduct and in so doing shows them not to replicate their transgressions (Siegel Bartollas, 2013). â€Å"Corrections serves as a substitute for language, and its important message is that society condemns the behavior committed† (Siegel Bartollas, 2013, p. 6). This is done with deterrence measure, which is aimed to prevent others from committing similar crimes (Siegel Bartollas, 2013). Lastly, it’s thought that punishment maintain the government, social structure, and society (Siegel Bartollas, 2013). Since the government cannot endure unless it upholds a set of rules that create, support, and protect its structure and process, laws are created to control behaviors that threaten security and well-being, and provides that people may be corrected or punished if they engage in socially proscribed wrongs (Siegel Bartollas, 2013). â€Å"Because criminal laws are designed to protect the social fabric, the defendant must answer not just to the individual victim, but to the whole polity through its criminal courts† (Siegel Bartollas, 2013, p. 7). Sentencing laws have changed over the years. TheShow MoreRelatedCrime and Punishment934 Words   |  4 PagesCrime and Punishment Criminology Rawphina Maynor Mr. Arata Saturday AM Crime and punishment through time has made some dramatic changes. The earliest form of written code is the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi, though most of western law comes from Ancient Rome. In 451 BC the Roman Republic issued the Law of the Twelve Tables that constituted the basis of Roman law. Theft and assault were crimes committed against individual and required the victim to prosecute the offender before the appropriateRead MoreCrime And Punishment And The Punishment2363 Words   |  10 Pages In every country, a crime committed has a punishment that goes hand in hand with it. The nature of the crime determines the punishment that follows it. The nature of the punishment also depends on the law that operates in the country in which the crime is committed. Different crimes attract different penalties. For instance, crimes involving murder may attract capital punishment on the criminal, or life jail sentence depending on the circumstances surrounding the murder. Capital offences do attractRead MoreIs It A Crime Or Punishment?1084 Words   |  5 PagesWhat constitutes whether something is a crime or punishment? This varies depending on where one lives, their culture and their personal beliefs. For instance if someone was on trial for claims of child abuse they might not see their actions toward the child as abusive. If the person is on trial it is likely that other people do not share the accused’s opinion. The difference in opinion can be a result of being raised wit h different beliefs. An example of differentiate opinion is the matter of spankingRead MoreNotes On Crime And Punishment1576 Words   |  7 PagesYr 8 Depth Study 1 - Crime Punishment Inquiry Scaffold 1. Read the sections in the national archives source before 1450 and 1450 - 1750. You need to look at the summary and at least two of the case studies found at the top right of each page. Record the details of the case studies that you read. Case Study 1 - Summary Notes (Crime before 1450 - nonviolent offences) Case Study 2 - Summary notes (Punishment before 1450 - capital punishment) Case Study 3 - Summary Notes (Crime prevention 1450 - 1750Read MoreThe Philosophy Of Crime And Punishment1182 Words   |  5 PagesThe Philosophy of Puppetry in Crime and Punishment Consider the design of a puppet. When observing this structure, one will give attention to the source of the puppet’s actions being dictated by the puppeteer. These actions are able to be transmitted from the will of the puppeteer into the puppet through the strings that the puppeteer uses to control specific parts of the puppet. Furthermore, one can infer that the strings of the puppet are the motive behind the puppet’s action. If the puppet’s actionsRead MoreSummary : On Crimes And Punishments1139 Words   |  5 PagesIngrid Nin â€Å"Licentious†. â€Å"Ill-directed†. â€Å"Barbarity†. These are only some of the words used by Enlightenment philosophe, Cesare Beccaria, to describe the manner in which the Old Regime handled the criminal justice system in his book, On Crimes and Punishments. As a proponent for enlightenment thinking, Beccaria published the text to â€Å"diffuse the knowledge of†¦ philosophical truths† (), like many philosophes did during the Age of Reason. He believed that through this â€Å"rational beings† would rise upRead MoreCrime and Punishment Essay1717 Words   |  7 PagesCrime at its simplest is an act prohibited by law upon pain of punishment (Hall-Williams 1964). Theorists such as McCabe (1983:49) stated that no word in legal and criminological terms could define the word crime for the varying content in which an act is categorised. Due to the broad spectrum surrounding crime, differing understandings about human subjects and premises lead t o the development of several theories, assumptions and forms of criminal law. Michael and Adler (1933:2) are often citedRead Morepunishment for petty crimes1650 Words   |  7 Pagesfine? I would gladly prefer the latter. The prison has a â€Å"revolving door† as if welcoming persons to come again. We need to replace this door with job services and opportunities and quality rehabilitation. A prison term is not the answer to petty crimes in our Bahamian society. The jail house is already surpassed its max capacity, take away persons there for traffic violations, littering, marijuana possession, shoplifting or other petty offences and you have saved the Bahamian government and taxRead MorePunishment For Committing A Crime Essay2085 Words   |  9 PagesPunishment for committing a crime is a common and widespread practise across the world. The moral reasons as to why punishment is used in response to crime can vary greatly. Two theories of punishment include consequentialism, the belief that punishment should be performed because of the good consequences that come from it; and retributivism, the belief that it is morally justified to punish criminals because they deserve it, regardless of the consequences. These theories of morally justified punishmentRead MoreGuilt Crime and Punishment1556 Words   |  7 Pageswhen they are accused of a crime they have committed, substantial, and minimal. Though there are exceptions sometimes when guilt begins to form and we have no power over it. On the contrary Guilt can also be when somebody who is blameless are said to have committed the crime. Guilt can come in many forms but one most common is a emotion. Though majority of all people that have a conscience feel bad for the wrongdoing that they commit. In the novels Crime and Punishment by Dostoyevsky and Metamorphosis

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Psychological Theories Of Crime - 2359 Words

Introduction â€Å"Offending behaviour rises steeply as age increases, with over 80% of offences committed by 14 to 16-year- olds.† (Risk and Protective Factors, 2005) Youth crime and violence are pressing issues, there has been an increase in the seriousness of youth crimes over the years. Young offenders are not receiving proper legal treatment because of the lack of efficiency and emphasis on rehabilitation in the current system. There are a couple points that prove the Youth Criminal Justice Act is too lenient, the risk factors and assessment are not accurate, and treatment for youths is not efficient. How does my topic relate to the field of psychology? My topic relates back to the psychological theories of crime. John Bowlby is known†¦show more content†¦What further research do you think should be done regarding the issue? Some further research that should be done regarding this issue is that there should be more prevention programs for youths who are already struggling with issues in their lives. There should also be more programs in schools that relate back to young offenders and mental illness and how it affects many people these days. There should also be different types of programs for when youths are convicted of an offence and have some type of issue, while receiving jail time there should be a type of program inside the jail to help them learn while serving their time. Youth Criminal Justice Act Objective The Youth Criminal Justice Act is too lenient and is not an effective deterrent to criminal activity. While there are many advantages to the Youth Criminal Justice Act, there are also many disadvantages about this Act as well. In section 5 of the youth Criminal Justice Act, it states that the objectives are to: â€Å"(a) Provide an effective and timely response to offending behaviour outside the bounds of judicial measures; (b) Encourage young persons to acknowledge and repair the harm caused to the victim and the community; (c) Encourage families of young persons — including extended families where appropriate — and the community to become involved in

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, Better Known By His Pen Name

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, better known by his pen name J.R.R. Tolkien, came from a family that was primarily craftsmen that had emigrated to England from Germany in the 18th century. John was born on January 3rd, 1892 to father Arthur Tolkien and mother Mabel Tolkien in Bloemfontein, South Africa. His family had moved there after his father was promoted to head of the Bloemfontein office of the British bank. John had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel. At age three John, Hilary, and their mother went to visit England but his father stayed in South Africa for a short time, where he later died of rheumatic fever. This left the three in England with no source of income so his mother took him and his brother to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham. The next year they moved again to Warwickshire. The area around Warwickshire would have great influence on his writing. One such place was his aunt Jane’s farm Bag End which he used in his works. Tolkien was homeschooled by his mother who taught him botany. He enjoyed plants and drew landscapes. He could read by age four and write shortly after. By this time Tolkien had already mastered Latin and Greek and enjoyed making up languages purely for fun. His mother died of diabetes at age 34 when he was 12. Before she died she gave guardianship of John and his brother to Fr. Francis Xavier Morgan. He raised them to be catholic in Edgbaston. He started school at King Edward’s School but later moved to St.

Midnight In The Garden Of Good And Evil Archetypal Project Free Essays

Midnight in the garden of good and evil archetypal project. Summary 1, November 10, Pages 1-25: Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil starts with the main character, John Berendt as the Narrator. He first introduces the book by speaking of a man by the name of Jim Williams, the home owner of the Mercer house in Savannah Georgia. We will write a custom essay sample on Midnight In The Garden Of Good And Evil Archetypal Project or any similar topic only for you Order Now This intelligent yet cocky man is an antique dealer and is quite rich, owning many houses and valuable antiques. He spends most of his time restoring antiques and â€Å"living like an aristocrat, but not actually being one. His assistant, Danny Hansford is very rowdy, he intrudes on Berendt’s interview of Williams by storming into Mercer house cursing a certain â€Å"Bonnie† and insists that he get â€Å"jacked up† on drugs. Summary2, November 11, Pages 25-50: In the second chapter of Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil, we are introduced to yet another character by the name of Mary Harty, and elderly woman who has lived in Savannah for most of her life. Miss Harty is the mentor archetype, she drags Berendt all through Savannah, giving him information that only locals could tell you. Once the tour was finished, Berendt decided he would like to stay longer in the grand town of Savannah, and booked a room in the second floor of a carriage house. From here we meet the temptress Mandy Nichols and the trickster Joe Odom. Joe is the permanent host of an everlasting party, he steals electricity from the next door neighbors and swindles people out of their money, yet everyone loves him to death. Mandy is his fourth wife in waiting, she’s won several pageants and is quite beautiful. Summary 3, November 12, Pages 50-75: Into the 4th chapter of the novel, Berendt takes us to a junk shop to shop for necessities for his new living space in Savannah. He describes a Buddha-like owner and an â€Å"expressionless man in his mid-thirties, with mousy brown hair and one eye made up in purple eye shadow. † The man with one eye made-up is referred to as Jack-the-one-eyed-Jill, according to his boss. Afterwards, Berendt comes across a strange man who has the same morning routine as himself, and orders the same meal every single day; this man is Luther Driggers the inventor. This man is the outsider archetype, no one particularly enjoys his company, and rumors spread that he has a poison stronger than arsenic, and plans to one day dump it into Savannah’s water supply. Summary 4, November 13, pages 75-100 Berendt;s journey is beginning to unfold and the â€Å"small world† philosophy is starting to show, everybody seems to be connected to everybody in Savannah now that Berendt is getting to know more and more locals. In Joe Odom’s house he meets Emma Kelly a pianist who hardly ever sleeps, music is her entire life. Joe describes the aspects of Emma’s life to Berendt and he is throughly pleased to listen. Later on, Berendt is driving home and spots a woman staring him down, her name is Chablis, she is a drag queen. Chablis is a temptress, Berendt describes her as â€Å"having no masculine features† at all and being quite beautiful and feminine. Summary 5, November 14, pages 100-125 How to cite Midnight In The Garden Of Good And Evil Archetypal Project, Papers

Effect Of Auditor Independence On Quality -Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Effect Of Auditor Independence On Quality? Answer: Introducation As per section 250(1), Marketing Professional Services of the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants, if a Professional Accountant in Public Practice requests for obtaining work through advertising his expertise and qualifications, there is a possibility of possible risks to conformity with the basic principles. According to section 250(2), the professional accountant shall not degrade his /her profession while advertising his expertise or qualification. The accountant should be fair and sincere in his dealings. The accountant shall not make a mountain out of a molehill for his services, qualifications or expertise. So, in this case, the Berowra Accountants are advertising a special in the local paper that they guarantee to provide their clients with a tax refund .It is a wrong practice to guarantee tax refunds. They can plan the tax savings and tax planning. So, there is a violation of section 250 Marketing services in the mentioned case (International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants, 2016). As per section 210(1), Professional Appointment, of the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants, the professional accountant in public practice shall evaluate the prospective client before accepting the offer to provide expertise and services. The risk of non-compliance of the basic principles may arise due to ambiguous issues pertaining to the client. According to section 210(4), the professional accountant shall gain full knowledge and comprehend the client fully. He/she should also evaluate the owners, managerial personnel, governance and commercial activities. The accountant should secure the clients assurance regarding the improvement of the corporate governance practices and internal control procedures. According to section 220(1), Conflicts of Interest, of International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants, a professional accountant shall recognize the situations which could pose a threat to Conflicts of Interest. So, in this case, Jamie Harvey is an auditor for a chartered accounting firm has been offered to be the treasurer of the local athletics club .It is against the ethical principles of section 210 and 220. Hence, Jamie cant be the treasurer of the local athletics club (Glover Prawitt, 2014). According to section 290(1) Independence Assurance Engagements of International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants, the professional accountants shall be independent of their clients. So, in the given case the Pymble Accountants has carried the audit of Monlee Ltd. and the final payments are dependent upon receiving the appropriate report (PWC, 2013). There is a violation of the ethical principle under section 290 as it is unethical on the clients side to influence the results of the analysis of the financial statement. So, the auditors should decline such offer from the clients side (International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants, 2016). According to the section 230(1), Second Opinions of International Ethics Standards Board for Accountant, if a professional accountant have been asked to deliver a second opinion on the auditing and accounting matters, by or on behalf of the company which is not his/her client may pose a threat to compliance of the basic principles. If the professional advice provided by the latter accountant is not based on the same set of information which were made available to the former, it may pose a threat to compliance with the auditing principles (Patrick, Vitalis Mdoom, 2017). So, in this case, where Winton Accountants have submitted the working papers of audit of Motoring Services Company after its completion to Chadwick Chartered Accountants for the quality review of the audit work is against the ethical principle. According to section 230(2) of International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants, they should first evaluate the probability of any risks and implement the precautions to minimize them upto a significant level. Kaveh et al. suggests that accounting emphasizes on stating the facts and the consistency of the financial statements in an impartial manner. Through Independence, the auditor states that he has performed his task in an unprejudiced way. The auditor should express an honest and fair opinion pertaining to the financial statements. He /she should not be affected from the influence of the client entity. His judgment shall not be prejudiced by any relationship between them. In the given case, the auditors are facing Self Review Threat in which one of the members of the auditor team Jane Davis has been the past employee of the client entity. So, she should not be appointed as a part of the audit team. It would affect the independence of the auditing team (Nawaiseh Alnawaiseh , 2015). As per CPA (2014) the Management Threat occurs when the audit firm performs the work regarding the judgments and decision making which should be the accountability of the management. In the given case, John Darrow, the Audit Manager of Darrow Associates Accountants, has received the accounts of Winmalee Ltd. which has the optimistic approach of the valuation of development expenditure capitalized in the intangible assets. It might have an impact on the firms performance. The management should adopt the pessimistic approach while assessing the value of the development expenditure capitalized in the intangible assets. It is the managements duty to adopt the right approach while valuing the development expenditure. Also the auditors are facing the threat to integrity as per section 110 Integrity of the ICAEW Code of Ethics. Integrity implies not only in adopting fair dealings but also fairly communicating with the client entity while conducting the audit (ICAEW, 2013). So, the auditors are facing the Management Threat as well as Threat to Integrity. In the given case, the chocolate company invited the auditing firm to visit its seconds chocolate shop where defective chocolates were sold at a discount and to join its social club, before the completion of audit. This may result in Self Interest Threat to the independence of auditors. It occurs when the auditing firm or its members can take the undue advantage from the financial interests or self- interest from the client. With regards to the mentioned case, the client entity is trying to affect the independence of the auditors by offering discounted products and hospitality so that they can produce good report of its financial statements. As a result, the auditors are facing Self- Interest Threat to their independence (Ali Nesrine, 2015). As per Section 570 of the Auditing Standard ASA 570 Going Concern, the accountability of the auditors is to assess whether the firm has the capacity to continue as a successful entity and financial report should be prepared accordingly. So, in the given case, as per ASA 570, the auditor would give a Qualified Opinion. As the company is running short of funds to pay its debts and it has been asked by the bank to repay its overdraft within a month. All the other attempts to obtain the funds have been failed. So, the company is facing the threat to operate successfully in the near future (Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, 2015). Though the auditors have not found any substantial misstatements in its financial report but there seems to be a threat to its existence. The auditors will mention the commissions made by the company in the additional paragraphs and the reasons of their Qualified Opinion (Wickramasingha . Nanayakkara, 2015). In the given case, where the difference between LIFO and FIFO is calculated which has led to material misstatements affecting the stock. The auditor shall produce an Adverse Opinion in this regard. As per Australian Auditing Standard ASA 405 Evaluation of Misstatements Identified during Audit, the auditors shall form their view regarding the financial reports .They must analyze whether the accounts are free from substantial mismanagements (Auditing and Assurance Standards Board, 2015). In the given case, the factory located in Melbourne was valued five years ago. The same amount is included in the balance sheet, assuming that the market values have remained same during the past five years. In this case, the auditors will give a Qualified Opinion regarding the financial reports of the Victorian Manufacturing company. They will mention their qualifications in the extra paragraph (PCAOB, 2017). References Ali , O. M. Nesrine, A. (2015) Factors Affecting Auditor Independence in Tunisia: The Perceptions of Financial Analysts. Journal of Finance and Accounting. 3(3), pp.42-49. Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (2015) Auditing Standard ASA 450 Evaluation of Misstatements Identified during the Audit [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 19th January, 2018]. Auditing and Assurance Standards Board (2015) Auditing Standard ASA 570 Going Concern [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 15th January, 2018]. CPA (2014) Provision of accounting services to an audit client: Example of Threats and Safeguards [Online]. Available from [Accessed 18th January, 2018]. Glover, S. M. Prawitt, F.D. (2014) Enhancing Auditor Professional Skepticism: The Professional Skepticism Continuum. Current Issues in Auditing. 8(2). pp.P1P10. ICAEW (2013) Integrity [Online]. Available from [Accessed 19th January, 2018]. International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (2016) Handbook of the Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants. New York: International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants. Kaveh, M., Khalili, M. , Ghorbani , A. Soroush, M.( 2014) Professional Ethics in Accounting and Auditing. World Essays Journal. 1(2),pp. 85-93. Nawaiseh, M. A.L.AI. Alnawaiseh, M.(2015) The Effects of the Threats on the Auditors Independence. International Business Research. 8(8),pp.141-149. Patrick, Z., Vitalis , K. Mdoom, I.(2017) Effect of Auditor Independence on Audit Quality: A Review of Literature. International Journal of Business and Management Invention. 6(3), pp.51-59. PCAOB (2017) AS 3105, Departures from Unqualified Opinions and Other Reporting Circumstances [Online]. Available from [Accessed 19th January, 2018]. PWC (2013) Point of View [Online]. Available from [Accessed 19th January, 2018]. Wickramasingha, S.R.M. . Nanayakkara, K.G.M. (2015) The External Auditors Opinions and The Stakeholders Purposes: An Empirical Analysis in Sri Lanka. Kelaniya Journal of Management.4 (1), pp. 31-49.

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Conflict Management Plan free essay sample

Each of the five management strategies has strengths and weaknesses that the management needs in order to settle a conflict. The accommodating strategy is low in assertiveness and high in cooperation. This strategy puts the others needs or interest before his or her own just to maintain a harmonious relationship. In certain conflicts this could be fine because it allows the other party to feel like they have won the conflict. The problem with the accommodating strategy is the outcome, is of low importance. The compromising strategy is moderate assertiveness and moderate cooperation. Using the compromising strategy there is no clear winner or loser. The compromising strategy is defined as â€Å"giving up more than you want†. This strategy is used as a temporary solution to the conflict not a permanent one, which could create a bigger problem later. The compromising strategy is good for when there are time constraints and the conflict needs to be resolved fast. We will write a custom essay sample on Conflict Management Plan or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The collaborative strategy is high assertiveness and high cooperation. The collaborative strategy finds an integrative solution to the ideas presented to come up with a plan to achieve everyone’s goals. The strengths are simple; it is a â€Å"win-win† for all the parties involved. This allows everyone to merge his or her perspectives to come up with a permanent solution to the conflict. Ideally this is the best strategy to use because it gets everyone involved in the conflict solution and the conflict is resolved with a greater amount of satisfaction. The only weakness I can think of is when there are time constraints involved. It will take some time to gather everyone’s thoughts and implement a plan, so if there is urgency to solve the conflict before a short deadline you might run into some problems. Avoiding strategy is low assertiveness and low cooperation. This strategy is basically avoiding all conflicts. The only strength I can possibly think of is that if you are certain, you cannot win the conflict and you avoid it to live another day. The avoiding strategy is probably the least favorable because conflicts never get resolved. The competing strategy is high assertiveness and low cooperation. The competing strategy is when a person looks to satisfy his or her interests above all without any care of the other parties involved. This strategy is best used when quick action needs to take place or when an unpopular decision needs to be made to solve a conflict. The problem with this strategy is there are no inputs from other parties, which could leave them feeling upset, hurt, or resentful. To solve the conflict between David and James, I would use the collaborative strategy because it allows everyone involved sharing their perspective. So far no one has spoken to each other personally and everything is based off of here say, which resulted in the current conflict. To resolve this conflict I would set up a time mediate with James, David, and their supervisors in a face-to-face meeting to come up with possible solutions as a group. Everyone would be able to state his or her own perspective on what the actual problem is, so the group can collectively come up with a solution that will make everyone happy. This strategy will be used to create a harmonious work environment between the two. If collaborative strategy does not work, then my alternative to use would be the competing strategy. Which is used when quick action needs to be taken and when that unpopular decision needs to be made. If David and James were unable to come up with a possible solution collectively, I as a manager would need to make that decision for them. I would write down what each person has to say and make the final decision myself to quickly resolve the conflict. There could be some possible challenges like gender, how people feel about themselves, expectations, situation, position, and communication to name a few.